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TOXICOLOGY EXPERT WITNESS SPECIALISTS, EXPERTS WITNESSES & FORENSIC CONSULTANTS.
Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem, including the prevention and betterment of such adverse effects.
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Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicon and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. The chief criterion regarding the toxicity of a chemical is the dose, i.e. the amount of exposure to the substance. It is safe to say that almost all substances are toxic under the right conditions. As Paracelsus, the father of modern toxicology said, Â?Sola dosis facit venenumÂ? (only dose determines the poison). Paracelsus, who lived in the 16th century was the first person to explain the dose-response relationship of toxic substances.
Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly. An example is wood alcohol or methanol, which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, a good example being acetaminophen (paracetamol), especially in the presence of alcohol. The genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between one individual and the next. Because demands placed on one liver enzyme can induce activity in another, many molecules become toxic only in combination with others. A family of activities that engages many toxicologists includes identifying which liver enzymes convert a molecule into a poison, what are the toxic products of the conversion and under what conditions and in which individuals this conversion takes place.